The political system of Great Britain
Great Britain is only major country in the world, which
does not have a written constitution set out in a single
document. The constitution in the UK is made up of Acts
of Parliament, common law and conventions which may be
changed by general agreement.
The British Government sits in London. Great Britain is
a limited or constitutional or parliamentary monarchy
headed by Queen Elizabeth II now. The Queen acts only on
the advice of her Ministers. She reigns but she doesn't
rule. Parliament, which consists of two houses: the
House of Commons and the House of Lords, both of which
arose during the Middle Ages, limit the power of the
Queen. England was a first country to have a Parliament.
The House of Lords is an out-of-date institution.
The House of Commons is elective and more powerful. The
members of Parliament sit on both sides of the Speaker,
the government on his right, the opposition on his left.
Most members of the government belong to the party,
which wins a majority of the sits in the House of
Commons. The leader of the majority party becomes the
Prime Minister. The Prime Minister chooses the
Government. From the 60 ministers in the government
Prime Minister chooses the smaller group of about 20,
called the Cabinet. The Cabinet takes all major
political decisions. At present there are four political
parties in England, the Conservative (or Tory) Party,
the Labour Party, the Liberal Party, the
Since 1867 British politics have been dominated by two
major parties, the Conservative Party and the Labour
Party, which both represent the ruling class.