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30 2 :

=+1 +2

- -

1- -

2- -

=+++(-)

-

-

-

=1+2 (         

=-+-

-

-

          2)

     =(-)+

     - =-

      =+++

      =% +++

      - =-.

()=--

     =+²++

     ²=+ײ, =-, =-

          3)

      =-

          4)

=+

   -

=+\

    -

     = \

=-

=(-)++++++

- \

+ =

 

 

=-( )

= ( / )100

=( ) \ )* 100

 

= /

= ( /)100

=**100

Ñ= 100 

 Ñ=(-)/ *100

3: (, )

=Dײ\D

=/*100

- , -

: =(-)*2,5

- %%

=(100-)/100*

=, =

=*100/(100-)

=-

-

=-100

Ҳ= ( )/ )*100-

     

= Þ

 

3: ,

=-,

=+

= -

=(), =(;) =(;)

 

-

=\*100%

-

=\*100%

+=100% 1,0, >

- ()

=D\D*100%

=D\D*100%

+=100% 1,0

: >1     >1

                  <0     <0  

         

D=D+*D ()

D=D+*D ()

, -,- ,  =

         

²=ײ+dt, dK=A, ײ=t+1-K1

²=t+1-(1-d)\Kt

d-

=-b*, b-

=D -(D+D) =-%

=(-)-*, <

=+( ), =+

=\ײ*100%

=-, -

         

=  ²=-f()

- =\

=1\-

-, 

=-b* b-

D> D , ̳=D/D²- ², ̳=1\, ̳=1\(1-)

D=̳*D²=1\*D²,̳=

D=*

,¯Þ²,

¯,Þ²¯,¯

(D)

ֳ : =D\ = D

ֳ : D=D*

= +D*

D=(+D* )\-

:

ֳ : - % , - , -

: - , - (, , -), -

: =(,)

¯: ¯,¯ , ¯, ¯ , const Þ

C ¯,

: ¯, -const, ¯, ¯, ¯ = ()

: - (, ), - , - Þ

: ¯, -,

¯-

6:

-

=²+, =, =

²=, ²=

>-¯ --

<- --¯

-픺 ²=, ²=²², =:²=

<²-¯² ,-,<-- , =²-², -²=, >²- ² , -, > ,-¯, =²+²,+²=, =², =, =

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 


 

 

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